breast cancer symptoms

Before trying to understand breast cancer, it is better to understand the breast cancer symptoms. The breast cancer is a disease or cancer that develops from the breast cells. Breast cancer starts when the breast cells start growing abnormally and there is no cell apoptosis. I.e. cell death. Cancer usually starts from the inner lining of the milk ducts or lobules that supply them with milk. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that spreads to the whole body i.e. metastasis.

breast cancer symptoms

Breast cancer usually occurs when the breast cells grow uncontrollably, reduces to dile at the right time. That is apoptosis and has the tendencies to spread to other organs or part of the body. The reason why this cell grows abnormally is unknown but there are certain predisposing factors that predispose one to breast cancer. It is very important that once take caution and know the breast cancer symptoms.

Predisposing Factors to Breast cancer symptoms

  • Smoking is a major contributing factor. Most chain smokers have breast cancer symptoms after a long time of smoking
  • Also is alcoholic consumption
  • Just like the popular saying, ‘obesity is a disease’ and it is a contributing factor that brings about the sightings of breast cancer symptoms
  • Living a sedentary life style is also a factor
  • Not getting pregnant after the age of 30 yrs.
  • Early menarche is also a factor that cannot be ignored
  • Another factor that can bring about one having the breast cancer symptoms is the genetic mutation such as the inheritance of the BRC A1 and the BRC A2
  • According to scientific research, most breast cancer symptoms are noticed after the age of 50 so it is possible to say old age is a contributing factor.
  • Early menopause before the age of 55 or after predisposes a woman to have breast cancer because she is exposed to estrogen hormones for a long period of time
  • Taking oral contraceptive also predisposes one to breast cancer
  • Also if there is a trace in the family history, then there is a tendency of breast cancer.
  • Another factor that cannot be ignored is if there is a previous treatment history.

Pathophysiology of breast cancer

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that causes cells to grow abnormally. And uncontrollably spread to other distant organs and refuse to die at a normal time. The cause is unknown but there are certain predisposing factors and breast cancer symptoms to take note of. Just like I listed above, sedentary life style, fairly menopause, fairly menarche, genetics and so much more. These are the factors that that exposes one to cancer.

Genes that are found in the pathways of these cells are usually mutated in such a way that they keep on multiplying and rendering the cells incapable of committing suicide. That is, cell death when it’s no longer needed. This process of mutation is what causes cancer. But a breast cancer will never knock at your door without the breast cancer symptoms.

The inherited BRCA1 and the BRCA2 gene usually interferes with the repair of DNA cross links. These cancer agents cause the DNA to be damaged. A recent study has shown that cancer may not be irreversible for all carriers of the BRCA1 and the A2 mutations.

Top breast cancer symptoms that you should know

  • Nipple discharge, this is a major breast cancer symptom. It should never be ignored
  • Pain that radiates to the shoulder is also another breast cancer symptoms
  • Nipple discoloration
  • Sudden swelling of the breast should never be ignored also
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Persistent loss of weight
  • Progressive model enlargement
  • Also, you should not capitalize on all these breast cancer symptoms alone in making a decision. Make sure you contact your doctor or medical personnel before taking decisions or taking an action.

Breast Cancer Symptoms in Men

Most people think it’s only ladies that suffer breast cancer, that’s very wrong. This popular belief has made people very negligent of breast cancer symptoms in men. Below are the common breast cancer symptoms in men.

  • The presence of a thickening and painless lumps in the breast tissue
  • Changes in the nipple for examples, redness or an inverted nipple.
  • Nipple discharges
  • Changes in the skin area covering the breast such as redness, dimpling, and puncturing of the skin.
  • Also, you should not capitalize on all these breast cancer symptoms alone in making a decision. Make sure you contact your doctor or medical personnel before taking decisions or taking an action.

Breast cancer symptoms in women

Breast cancer is known to be very common amongst women. So it is very important to know the breast cancer symptoms to be on the save side. Below are the common breast cancer symptoms popularly common to ladies.

  • Nipple discharge
  • Nipple discoloration
  • Presence of a growth in the axilla region
  • Foul smell from the breast
  • Inverted nipple
  • Orange peel texture is commonly known as peau de orange
  • Breast pain
  • Sore nipple
  • Then a change in size and shape of the nipple
  • Also, you should not capitalize on all these breast cancer symptoms alone in making a decision. Make sure you contact your doctor or medical personnel before taking decisions or taking an action.

How to diagnose breast cancer

Breast cancer can be diagnosed with the following ways.

  • Physical examination of the breast. This can be done by inspecting the breast from the shape to the color and texture of the breast. Palpate to detect any lump in the breast or any other physical breast cancer symptoms
  • Presenting clinical manifestation
  • Breast examination which can be done by patients or physicians
  • Mammography this is the process of viewing the breast
  • Breast cancer can also be diagnosed with the aid of ultrasound scanning of the breast
  • A biopsy can also be done. In this process, a tissue is obtained from the breast tissue then taken to the laboratory for further analysis.

Staging in Cancer

The Stages of breast cancer can easily be understood by using the TNM system. (T – Tumour, N – Node – M – metastasis). The TNM classification is based on the sizes of the tumor, any lymph node affected and metastasis to distant or near organs.

The main stages are

  • Stage 0 Zero: In these stages, one of the breast cancers, the cells are usually precancerous, ductile, carcinoma, insitu or lobular carcinoma insitu are present there. The size of the tumor cannot be seen, there is no lymph node organs. It is charted as T0 N0 M0
  • Stage 1 One: here the tumor is above 21m big or less, there is no involvement of lymph nodes and no metastasis. It is charted as T1 N0 M0
  • Stage 2 TWO: in state two, the cancerous tumor is locally advanced. There is involvement of auxiliary lymph Nodes, but no metastasis to other organs. It is charted as T1 N1 M0
  • Stage 3 three: in this stage three, the breast cancer, the tumors are advancing. There is involvement of auxiliary lymph node above and below the diaphragm. But there is no metastasis to distant nearer organs. It is charted as T1 N2 M0
  • Stage 4 four: here, the cancerous tumors are fully advanced; there is metastasis to other organs such as the spinal cord, the heart and a lot more. More lymph nodes are affected and it is charted as T1 N2 M1

Management of Breast cancer

Note:  the management of breast cancer or any other content present in this category of this website 9dtrends does not supersede any doctor’s prescription or management.

There are usually in different types of management for breast cancer.

The management of breast cancer symptoms or breast cancer is: medical management, surgical management, and radiotherapy.

  • Medical management: the medical management of breast cancer is usually referred to as chemotherapy. This is the use of drugs to cause cell apoptosis. This procedure is usually effective in the early breast cancer symptoms stages. Or the stage 2 and 3 of cancer.
  • Surgical managements. This involves the removal of the tumor with some of the surrounding tissues. Popular surgery done includes:
    mastectomy which is the removal of the entire breast.
    Lumpectomy: this involves the removal of the portion of the breast containing the lump
    Quadrantectomy; this is the removal of 1/4  portion of the breast.

In any of these surgical cases, once the tumor removal is done, a breast reconstruction surgery usually is done to improve the appearance of the breast. It helps in self-confidence for cancer victims.

  • This is mostly done after surgery to the region of the tumor bed and regional lymph node. This is done to destroy any microscopic tumor cells. The application of radiotherapy reduces the chance of breast cancers at a percentage of 50 to 80.

NOTE… there is no content on this website that supersedes the administration of any medical personnel. The content present here is for scholarly purposes.
Everybody should join hand and fight against Self-medication. If you notice any breast cancer symptoms in your body, please visit the hospital for a proper check-up.

You can read more on cancer following this link

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